Friday, 21 March 2014

LORD WILLIAM BENTINCK (1828-1835)

Lord William Bentinck assumed the office of the Governor- General in 1828. Born in 1774 he commenced his career as a soldier and later at the young age of twenty two he became a Member of Parliament. He was appointed the Governor of Madras in 1803. He supported Sir Thomas Munroe on revenue administration. The Vellore Mutiny of 1806 had resulted in Bentinck’s recall. However, his appointment again to the higher office as Governor-General shows his real greatness. As Governor-General, Bentinck had initiated an era of progress and reforms. He was undoubtedly the first Governor- General of British India who acted on the dictum that “the welfare of the subject peoples was a main, perhaps the primary, duty of the British in India”.
CONTINUE READING | READ MORE | CLICK HERE

LORD HASTINGS (1813-1823)

Lord Hastings became Governor- General in 1813. He adopted a vigorous forward policy and waged wars extensively. His aggressive and imperialist polices paved the way for the general of expansion of the British Empire. He further expanded the British power in India. The conditions in India when he assumed power posed a serious threat to the British administration. There was anarchy in central India. The Pindaris plundered the whole region and the Marathas could not control them. Also, there was infighting among the Maratha chiefs. Yet, they were aiming at the expulsion of the British from India. The Peshwa was secretly plotting against the British. Hastings was also troubled by the expansion of the Gurkha power. Therefore, Hastings determined to restore order by suppressing the Pindaris and to eliminate threats to the British power by waging wars with the Marathas and the Gurkhas. 
CONTINUE READING | READ MORE | CLICK HERE

THE MARQUESS OF WELLESLEY (1798-1805)

The appointment of Richard Colley Wellesley as Governor- General marks an epoch in the history of British India. He was a great imperialist and called himself ‘a Bengal tiger’. Wellesley came to India with a determination to launch a forward policy in order to make ‘the British Empire in India’ into ‘the British Empire of India’. The system that he adopted to achieve his object is known as the ‘Subsidiary Alliance’. Political Condition of India at the time of Wellesley’s Arrival In the north-western India, the danger of Zaman Shah’s aggression posed a serious threat to the British power in India. In the north and central India, the Marathas remained a formidable political power. 
CONTINUE READING | READ MORE | CLICK HERE

LORD CORNWALLIS (1786-1793)

Lord Cornwallis, a warrior-statesman, succeeded Warren Hastings as Governor-General in 1786. He belonged to an influential and aristocratic family which had wider political connections. He was also a close friend of Prime Minister Pitt and of Dundas, the most influential member of the Board of Control. He distinguished himself as a remarkable soldier in the American War of Independence. Although he surrendered at York Town in 1781 before the American troops, his reputation was not spoiled. He still enjoyed the confidence of the authorities at Home. After his return from America he was offered the Governor- Generalship in India. Cornwallis was prompted by a strong sense of public duty and enjoyed the respect as well as the confidence of his fellow countrymen. The Parliament was prepared to give him extraordinary legal powers to carry out radical reforms in the administration of Bengal. 
CONTINUE READING | READ MORE | CLICK HERE

Expansionist Policy of Warren Hastings

Expansionist Policy of Warren Hastings 

Warren Hastings was known for his expansionist policy. His administration witnessed the Rohilla War, the First Anglo-Maratha War and the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The Rohilla War (1774) Rohilkand was a small kingdom situated in between Oudh and the Marathas. Its ruler was Hafiz Rahmat Khan. He concluded a defensive treaty in 1772 with the Nawab of Oudh fearing an attack by the Marathas. But no such attack took place. But, the Nawab demanded money. When Rahmat Khan evaded, the Nawab with the help of the British invaded Rohilkand. Warren Hastings, who sent the British troops against Rohilkand was severely crticised for his policy on Rohilla affair. 
CONTINUE READING | READ MORE | CLICK HERE

The English East India Company

The English East India Company The English East India Company was established on 31 December 1600 as per the Royal Charter issued by the Queen of England, Elizabeth I. The Company had sent Captain Hawkins to the court of the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir in 1608 to secure permission to establish a “factory” (store house of goods) at Surat. 
CONTINUE READING | READ MORE | CLICK HERE