Friday, 21 March 2014


Lord William Bentinck assumed the office of the Governor- General in 1828. Born in 1774 he commenced his career as a soldier and later at the young age of twenty two he became a Member of Parliament. He was appointed the Governor of Madras in 1803. He supported Sir Thomas Munroe on revenue administration. The Vellore Mutiny of 1806 had resulted in Bentinck’s recall. However, his appointment again to the higher office as Governor-General shows his real greatness. As Governor-General, Bentinck had initiated an era of progress and reforms. He was undoubtedly the first Governor- General of British India who acted on the dictum that “the welfare of the subject peoples was a main, perhaps the primary, duty of the British in India”.

Policy Towards Indian States 
William Bentinck adopted a policy of non-intervention and non-aggression with Indian states. If at all he interfered in the affairs of the Indian states, it was only to end any form of misgovernment and never to annex any territory. 

In Mysore, Hindu rule under Krishnaraja III was restored by Wellesley. In the beginning, the young Raja functioned well along with his able minister Puranaiya. Later, when the young raja assumed full control of the government he proved incompetent. The peasantry of the state suffered from many grievances. There was no redressal. Consequently, a revolt of the peasants broke out in 1830 and it was suppressed with the help of an army from Madras. Nonetheless, the British authorities took over the administration of Mysore State and placed it under the control of a commissioner. The Raja was given a pension. Sir Mark Cubbon was commissioner from 1834 to 1861 and his administration was beneficial to the people of Mysore. Even today, the famous Cubbon Park in Bangalore city has been named after him to remind his services to Mysore. 

Cachar and Jaintia 
The principality of Cachar lying in the North East Frontier came under the protection of the British in accordance with the Treaty of Yandaboo concluded at the end of the first Burmese War. The Raja of this small state was assassinated in 1832 but there was no heir to succeed him. Bentinck annexed this state at the wish of the people. Jaintia was one of the territories brought under the custody of the British after the first Anglo-Burmese War. The ruler of the small country behaved in an unruly way by abducting a few subjects of British India with the evil intention of sacrificing them to the goddess Kali. Therefore, the Governor-General acted promptly to avert any recurrence of such cruel abhorrent act and annexed this country. 

Vira Raja was a ruthless ruler of Coorg who treated his people with savage barbarity and killed all his male relatives. Lord William Bentinck decided to deal with him effectively and sent Colonel Lindsay to capture Mercara, the capital of the Coorg state. The Raja was deposed in 1834 and the state was annexed. 

Relations with Ranjit Singh 
Lord William Bentinck was the first Governor-General to visualise a Russian threat to India. Hence, he was eager to negotiate friendly relations both with the ruler of Punjab, Maharajah Ranjit Singh and also with the Amirs of Sind. His earnest desire was that Afghanistan should be made a buffer state between India and any possible invader. As an initial measure, an exchange of gifts took place between Lahore, the capital of Punjab and Calcutta, the seat of Governor-General. It was then followed by the meeting of Bentinck and Ranjit Singh on 25 October, 1831 at Rupar on the bank of the river Sutlej amidst show and splendor. The Governor-General was successful in winning the friendship of Ranjit Singh and the Indus Navigation Treaty was concluded between them. This treaty opened up the Sutlej for navigation. In addition, a commercial treaty was negotiated with Ranjit Singh. A similar treaty was also concluded with the Amirs of Sind. 

Charter Act of 1833 
The Regulating Act of 1773 made it compulsory to renew the Company’s Charter after twenty years. Hence, the Charter Act of 1793 was passed by the Parliament. It extended the life of Company for another twenty years and introduced minor changes in the existing set up. The Charter Act of 1813 provided one lakh of rupees annually for the promotion of Indian education. It also extended the Company’s charter for another twenty years. The Charter Act of 1833 was a significant constitutional instrument defining the scope and authority of the East India Company. The liberal and utilitarian philosophy of Bentham was made popular by the provisions of this Act. Following were the important provisions: (i) The English East India Company ceased to be a commercial agency in India. In other words, it would function hereafter as the political agent for the Crown. (ii) The Governor-General of Fort William was hereafter called ‘the Governor- General of India’. Thus, Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India’. (iii) A Law Member was appointed to the Governor-General’s Council. T. B. Macaulay was the first Law Member of the Governor- General-in-Council. (iv) The Act categorically stated ‘that no native of India, nor any natural born subject of His Majesty, should be disabled from holding any place, office, or employment, by reason of his religion, place of birth, descent or colour”. It was this enactment which laid the foundation for the Indianisation of public services. After twenty years, the Charter Act of 1853 was passed and it was the last in the series of Charter Acts. 

Reforms of Lord William Bentinck 
The advent of Lord William Bentinck ushered in a new era in the annals of India in many ways. Although his tenure of office covered only a short span of seven years, it saw a period of enduring reforms. They may be classified as financial, administrative, social and educational. 

Financial Reforms 
When Bentinck assumed the Governor-Generalship in 1828, the financial position of the Company was poor. The exchequer was very weak. The state budget showed a deficit of one million rupees. It became necessary on the part of the Governor-General to take effective steps to improve the financial condition. To achieve this he adopted the following measures: He reduced the salaries and allowances of all officers and additional staff were removed. In the military department, he abolished the system of double batta. (Batta was an allowance to troops on active service.) By these financial reforms at the time of his departure, he left the treasury with a surplus of Rs.1.5 millions. 

Administrative Reforms 
Bentinck’s administrative reforms speak of his political maturity and wisdom. In the judicial department he abolished the provincial courts of appeal established by Cornwallis. They were largely responsible for the huge arrears of cases. This step was readily accepted by the Directors since it cut down their expenditure. Another good measure of Bentinck was the introduction of local languages in the lower courts and English in the higher courts in the place of Persian. Even in matters of revenue Bentinck left his mark. He launched the revenue settlements of the North West Province under the control of R.M. Bird. This settlement was for a period of 30 years and it was made either with the tillers of the soil, or with the landowners.

Social Reforms 
The social reforms of William Bentinck made his name immortal in the history of British India. These include the abolition of Sati, the suppression of Thugs and the prevention of female infanticide. 

Abolition of Sati 
The practice of sati, the age old custom of burning of widows alive on the funeral pyre of their husbands was prevalent in India from ancient times. This inhuman social custom was very common in northern India more particularly in Bengal. Bentinck was greatly distressed when he received a report of 800 cases of sati in a single year and that from Bengal. He determined to abolish this practice which he considered an offence against natural justice. Therefore, he became a crusader against it and promulgated his Regulation XVII on 4 December 1829 prohibiting the practice of sati. Those who practiced sati were made liable for punishment by law courts as accessories to the crime. The Regulation was extended to the Madras and Bombay Presidencies in 1830. 

Suppression of Thugs 
The most commendable measure which Bentinck undertook and which contributed to the material welfare of the people was the suppression of the ‘thugs’. They were hereditary robbers. They went about in small groups of fifty to hundred posing as commercial gangs or pilgrims ‘strangling and robbing peaceful travellers’. They increased in number in central and northern India during the 18th century when anarchy reigned after the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. A campaign was systematically organised by Colonel Sleeman from 1830 against the thugs. During the course of five years nearly 2000 of them were captured. A greater number of them were exterminated and the rest were transported to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. For his role in the suppression of thugs, Sir William Sleeman was known as “Thugee Sleeman”. 

Female Infanticide 
Female infanticide was one of the horrible and heartless deeds committed even by civilized people. This practice killing female infants was very much prevalent in places like Rajputana, Punjab, Malwa and Cutch. Bentinck took effective steps to prevent the ritual of child sacrifice at Saugar Island in Bengal. He not only prohibited female infanticide but declared them as punishable crime. 

Introduction of English Education 
The introduction of English Education was a significant event of Lord William Bentinck’s administration. He appointed a committee headed by Lord Macaulay to make recommendations for the promotion of education. In his report, Macaulay emphasized the promotion of European literature and science through English medium to the people of India. This recommendation was wholeheartedly accepted by William Bentinck. The Government Resolution in 1835 made English the official and literary language of India. In the same year, William Bentinck laid foundation of the Calcutta Medical College. 

Estimate of William Bentinck 
Bentinck was a “straightforward, honest, upright, benevolent, sensible man”. His social reforms such as abolition of sati and prevention of child sacrifice eradicated age old evils from Hindu society. It is gratifying to note that “Bentinck acted where others had talked”. To enforce the regulations regarding the prohibition of sati, he was prepared to risk his own position. Such courage and straightforwardness were seldom found among the administrators of those days. His educational reforms heralded a new age in India.After William Bentinck, Lord Auckland (1836-42) became Governor-General. The First Afghan War (1836-42) was fought during his administration. Due to his failure in Afghanistan he was recalled in 1842. Lord Ellenborough succeeded him and ended the Afghan War. He also annexed the Sindh. His successor, Lord Hardinge (1844-48) fought the first Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) and concluded the Treaty of Lahore.

LORD HASTINGS (1813-1823)

Lord Hastings became Governor- General in 1813. He adopted a vigorous forward policy and waged wars extensively. His aggressive and imperialist polices paved the way for the general of expansion of the British Empire. He further expanded the British power in India. The conditions in India when he assumed power posed a serious threat to the British administration. There was anarchy in central India. The Pindaris plundered the whole region and the Marathas could not control them. Also, there was infighting among the Maratha chiefs. Yet, they were aiming at the expulsion of the British from India. The Peshwa was secretly plotting against the British. Hastings was also troubled by the expansion of the Gurkha power. Therefore, Hastings determined to restore order by suppressing the Pindaris and to eliminate threats to the British power by waging wars with the Marathas and the Gurkhas. 

War against the Gurkhas (1814-16) 
Nepal emerged as a powerful Gurkha state in 1768. This country is situated to the north of India with its boundary touching China in the north and Bengal and Oudh in the east and south, respectively. In 1801, the British acquired the districts of Gorakhpur and Basti from the Nawab of Oudh. This move brought the boundary of Nepal to touch the British frontier. The aggressions of the Gurkhas into the British territories culminated in a war. In May 1814, the Gurkhas attacked the British police post and killed 18 policemen and their officer. Hastings declared war on Nepal. In 1814 several battles were fought between the British and the Gurkhas. Amar Singh Thapa, the able General of Nepal Army was forced to surrender. In March 1816, the Treaty of Sagauli was concluded. The Gurkhas gave up their claim over the Tarai region and ceded the areas of Kumaon and Garhwal to the British. The British now secured the area around Simla and their north-western borders touched the Himalayas. The Gurkhas had to withdraw from Sikkim and they also agreed to keep a British Resident at Katmandu. It was also agreed that the kingdom of Nepal would not employ any other foreigner in its services other than the English. The British had also obtained the sites of hill stations like Simla, Mussoori, Nainital, Ranikhet and developed them as tourist and health resorts. After this victory in the Gurkha War Hastings was honoured with English peerage and he became Marquis of Hastings.

Suppression of the Pindaris 
The origin of Pindaris is lost in obscurity. The first reference about them is during the Mughal invasion of Maharashtra. They did not belong to any particular caste or creed. They used to serve the army without any payment but instead were allowed to plunder. During the time of Baji Rao I, they were irregular horsemen attached to the Maratha army. It is worth mentioning here that they never helped the British. They were mostly active in the areas of Rajputana and the Central Provinces and subsisted on plunder. Their leaders belonged to both the Hindu as well as the Muslim communities. Chief amongst them were Wasil Muhammad, Chitu and Karim Khan. They had thousands of followers. In 1812, the Pindaris plundered the districts of Mirzapur and Shahabad and in 1815 they raided the Nizam’s dominions. In 1816, they plundered the Northern Circars. Lord Hastings determined to suppress the Pindaris. For this he gathered a large army of 1,13,000 men and 300 guns and attacked the Pindaris from four sides. He himself took command of the force from the north while Sir Thomas Hislop commanded the force from the south. By 1818, the Pindaris were completely suppressed and all their bands disintegrated. Karim Khan was given a small estate in the Gorakhpur district of the United Provinces. Wasil Muhammad took refuge in the Scindia’s camp but the latter handed him over to the British. Wasil committed suicide in captivity and Chitu escaped to the forest, where a tiger killed him. Thus, by 1824, the menace of the Pindaris came to an end. 

Downfall of the Maratha Confederacy 
The third major achievement of Lord Hastings was against the Marathas. In reality, the Maratha power had weakened considerably after the Third Battle of Panipat (1761) and the two subsequent wars against the British. But the Marathas had not finally crushed out. The Maratha chiefs fought amongst themselves and their successors were invariably weak and incapable. The relationships of powerful Maratha chiefs like the Bhonsle, Gaekwar, Scindia, Holkar and the Peshwa were ridden with mutual jealousies. Peshwa Baji Rao II wanted to become the head of the Maratha Confederacy and at the same time wanted freedom from the British control. His Chief Minister Tirimbakji encouraged him. On the advice of the Company, the Gaekwar sent his Prime Minister Gangadhar Shastri to negotiate with the Peshwa. On his way back, Gangadhar Shastri, was murdered at Nasik in July 1815, at the instance of Triambakji. This caused a lot of anger not only among the Marathas but also among the British. The latter asked the Peshwa to handover Triambakji to them. Peshwa handed over his Minister to the British, who lodged him in Thana jail from where he escaped. Consequently, on 13 June 1817, the British Resident Elphinstone forced the Peshwa to sign the Treaty of Poona. Baji Rao gave up his desire to become the supreme head of the Marathas. 

Third Maratha War (1817-1819) 
But soon the Peshwa undid this treaty with the British and on 5 November 1817 attacked the British Residency. He was defeated at a place called Kirkee. Similarly, the Bhonsle chief, Appa Sahib also refused to abide by the Treaty of Nagpur, which he had signed with the British on 17 May 1816. According to this treaty, Nagpur came under the control of the Company. He fought with the British in the Battle of Sitabaldi in November 1817, but was defeated. The Peshwa now turned to Holkar for help, but Holkar too was defeated by the British on 21 December 1817 at Baroda. Therefore, by December 1817 the dream of a Mighty Maratha Confederacy was finally shattered. In 1818, Scindia was also forced to sign a new treaty with the British on the basis of which Ajmer was given to the Nawab of Bhopal, who also accepted the British suzerainty. The Gaekwar of Baroda, while accepting the Subsidiary Alliance, agreed to hand over certain areas of Ahmedabad to the British. The Rajput states which were under the Pindaris were freed after the latter’s suppression. The year 1818 was a significant year on account of major political achievements for the British. The Maratha dream of establishing themselves as the paramount power in India was completely destroyed. Thus, the last hurdle in the way of British paramountcy was removed. 

Causes of the Defeat of the Marathas 
There were several reasons for the defeat of the Marathas in the Anglo-Maratha Wars. The main reasons were: Lack of capable leadership Military weakness of the Marathas. The major drawback of the Maratha power was mutual bitterness and lack of cooperation amongst themselves. The Marathas hardly left any positive impact on the conquered territories. The Marathas did not have cordial relations with other princes and Nawabs of India. The Marathas failed to estimate correctly the political and diplomatic strength of the British. 

Reforms of Hastings 
The Governor-Generalship of Lord Hastings witnessed not only territorial expansion but also the progress of administration. He approved the Ryotwari system of land revenue introduced in the Madras Presidency by Sir Thomas Munroe. In the sphere of judiciary, the Cornwallis Code was improved. The Police system of Bengal was extended to other regions. The importance of Indian Munsiffs had increased during his administration. The separation of judicial and revenue departments was not rigidly followed. Instead, the District Collector acted as Magistrate. Hastings had also encouraged the foundation of vernacular schools by missionaries and others. In 1817, the Hindu College was established at Calcutta by the public for the teaching of English and western science. Hastings was the Patron of this college. He encouraged the freedom of the Press and abolished the censorship introduced in 1799. The Bengali Weekly, Samachar Darpan was started in 1818 by Marshman, a Serampore missionary. 

Lord Hastings was an able soldier and a brilliant administrator. His liberal views on education and Press are commendable. He suppressed the Pindaris, defeated the Marathas and curbed the power of the Gurkhas. His territorial gains strengthened the British power in India. He was considered the maker of the Bombay Presidency. In short, he completed and consolidated the work of Wellesley.


The appointment of Richard Colley Wellesley as Governor- General marks an epoch in the history of British India. He was a great imperialist and called himself ‘a Bengal tiger’. Wellesley came to India with a determination to launch a forward policy in order to make ‘the British Empire in India’ into ‘the British Empire of India’. The system that he adopted to achieve his object is known as the ‘Subsidiary Alliance’. Political Condition of India at the time of Wellesley’s Arrival In the north-western India, the danger of Zaman Shah’s aggression posed a serious threat to the British power in India. In the north and central India, the Marathas remained a formidable political power. 

The Nizam of Hyderabad employed the Frenchmen to train his army. The political unrest in the Karnatak region continued and Tipu Sultan had remained the uncompromising enemy of the British. Moreover, the policy of neutrality adopted by Sir John Shore, the successor of Cornwallis, created a kind of political unrest in India and greatly affected the prestige of the English. His non-intervention policy contributed much to the growth of anti-British feelings. Further, Napoleon’s move for an Eastern invasion created a fear among English statesmen. It was in this light that Wellesley moulded his policy. Preservation of British prestige and removal of French danger from India were Wellesley’s twin aims. 

He was also thoroughly convinced that only a strong British power in India could reduce and control the existing tyranny and corruption in Indian states. Therefore, he reversed the nonintervention policy of his predecessor and formulated his master plan namely the ‘Subsidiary Alliance’. The Subsidiary System The predecessors of Wellesley concluded alliances with Indian princes like the Nawab of Oudh and the Nizam of Hyderabad. They received subsidies from the Indian rulers for the maintenance of British troops, which were used for the protection of respective Indian states. 

Wellesley enlarged and consolidated the already existing system. However, his originality was revealed in its application. Main Features of Subsidiary Alliance 1. Any Indian ruler who entered into the subsidiary alliance with the British had to maintain a contingent of British troops in his territory. It was commanded by a British officer. The Indian state was called ‘the protected state’ and the British hereinafter were referred to as ‘the paramount power’. It was the duty of the British to safeguard that state from external aggression and to help its ruler maintain internal peace. The protected state should give some money or give part of its territory to the British to support the subsidiary force. 2. The protected state should cut off its connection with European powers other than the English and with the French in particular. The state was also forbidden to have any political contact even with other Indian powers without the permission of the British. 3. The ruler of the protected state should keep a British Resident at his court and disband his own army. He should not employ Europeans in his service without the sanction of the paramount power. 4. The paramount power should not interfere in the internal affairs of the protected state. Benefits to the British Wellesley’s Subsidiary System is regarded as one of the masterstrokes of British imperialism. It increased the military strength of the Company in India at the expense of the protected states. The territories of the Company were free from the ravages of war thereby establishing the stability of the British power in India. The position of the British was strengthened against its Indian and non-Indian enemies. Under the system, expansion of British power became easy. Thus Wellesley’s diplomacy made the British the paramount power in India. 

Defects of the Subsidiary System The immediate effect of the establishment of subsidiary forces was the introduction of anarchy because of the unemployment of thousands of soldiers sent away by the Indian princes. The freebooting activities of disbanded soldiers were felt much in central India where the menace of Pindaris affected the people. Further, the subsidiary system had a demoralizing effect on the princes of the protected states. Safeguarded against external danger and internal revolt, they neglected their administrative responsibilities. They preferred to lead easy-going and pleasureseeking lives. As a result misgovernment followed. In course of time, the anarchy and misrule in several states had resulted in their annexation by the British. Thus, the subsidiary system proved to be a preparation for annexation. Furthermore, the British collected very heavy subsidies from the protected princes and this had adversely affected their economy. Enforcement of the Subsidiary System Hyderabad: Hyderabad was the first state which was brought under Wellesley’s Subsidiary System in 1798. The treaty concluded in 1798 was an ad hoc measure. It fixed the amount to be paid annually at Rs.24 lakhs for the subsidiary force. In accordance with the treaty, all the French troops in Hyderabad were disbanded and replaced by a subsidiary British force. 

A new treaty was concluded in 1800 by which the Nizam ceded large territories to the Company and this constitutes the famous Ceded Districts. Oudh: The threat of invasion by Zaman Shah of Afghanistan was the pretext for Wellesley to force the Nawab of Oudh to enter into a subsidiary treaty. Accordingly, the Nawab gave the British the rich lands of Rohilkhand, the lower Doab and Gorakhpur for the maintenance of an increased army which the British stationed in the capital of Oudh. The strength of Nawab’s own army was reduced. For the maintenance of law and order the British were authorised to frame rules and regulations. By this, the British acquired the right to interfere in the internal matters of Oudh. Although the Company obtained a fertile and populous territory, which increased its resources, the highhanded action of Wellesley was severely criticized. Tanjore, Surat and the Karnatak Wellesley assumed the administration of Tanjore, Surat and the Karnatak by concluding treaties with the respective rulers of these states. The Maratha state of Tanjore witnessed a succession dispute. 

In 1799, Wellesley concluded a treaty with Serfoji. In accordance with this treaty the British took over the administration of the state and allowed Serfoji to retain the title of Raja with a pension of 4 lakhs of rupees. Raja Sarbhoji was a man of culture and attractive manners. He was the disciple of Schwarts. He built the Saraswathi Mahal Library in Tanjore which contains valuable books and manuscripts. He patronized art and culture. The principality of Surat came under British protection as early as 1759. The Nawab of this historic city died in 1799 and his brother succeeded him. The change of succession provided Wellesley an opportunity to take over the administration of Surat. The Nawab was allowed to retain the title and given a pension of one lakh of rupees. 

The people of Karnatak had been suffering for a long time by the double government. The Nawab, Umadat-ul-Umara was an incompetent ruler noted for his extravagance and misrule. He died in the middle of 1801 and his son, Ali Hussain became the Nawab. Wellesley asked him to retire with a liberal pension leaving the administration to the English. Since he refused, Wellesley signed a treaty with Azim-ud daulah, the nephew of the deceased Nawab in 1801. Accordingly the entire military and civil administration of the Karnatak came under the British. The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) The circumstances which led to the Fourth Mysore War can be summarized as follows: Tipu Sultan wanted to avenge his humiliating defeat and the terms imposed on him by the British. He also aimed at making Mysore a strong state. Tipu worked continuously to secure help to fight British imperialism. He took efforts to seek the help of the France, Arabia, Kabul and Turkey. He corresponded with the Revolutionary French Government in July 1798. 

At Srirangapattinam, a Jacobian Club was started and the flag of the French Republic was hoisted. The tree of Liberty was also planted. Later, when Napoleon came to power, Tipu received a friendly letter from Napoleon (who was in Egypt at that time). It was at this juncture that Wellesley reached Calcutta with a mind already filled with fear of Napoleon. Therefore, he prepared for a war against Mysore. As a part of his strategy, Wellesley tried to revive the Triple Alliance of 1790 with the Marathas. Though his proposal was not accepted by the Marathas, they promised to remain neutral. However, a Subsidiary Alliance with the Nizam was concluded by the British and as a consequence, the French force at Hyderabad was disbanded. Wellesley set out to persuade Tipu to accept a pact of subsidiary alliance and wrote letters requesting the Tipu to dismiss the French, to receive an English envoy, and to make terms with the Company and its allies. Tipu paid scant attention to Wellesley’s letters and thus the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war started. The war was short and decisive.

As planned, the Bombay army under General Stuart invaded Mysore from the west. The Madras army, which was led by the Governor-General’s brother, Arthur Wellesley, forced Tipu to retreat to his capital Srirangapattinam. Although severely wounded, he fought till his capital Srirangapattinam was captured and he himself was shot dead. Mysore After the War With the fall of Tipu Sultan the kingdom of Mysore fell at the feet of Wellesley. He restored Hindu rule at the central part of the kingdom. A five year old boy, Krishnaraja III, a descendant of the dethroned Hindu Raja, was enthroned at Mysore, which became the capital almost after two hundred years. Purnaiya, the previous minister, became Diwan. The remaining parts of the kingdom were divided between the British and the Nizam. The whole of Kanara, Wynad, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri and Srirangapattinam were retained by the British whereas the Nizam was given the areas around Gooty and a part of Chittoor and Chitaldurg districts. 

A British Resident was stationed at Mysore. Tipu’s family was sent to the fort of Vellore. Wellesley and the Marathas The only power that remained outside the purview of the subsidiary system was the Marathas. Nana Fadnavis provided the leadership to the Marathas. He was responsible for the preservation of independence of his country from the onslaught of the British. By extending a helping hand to Cornwallis against Tipu he was able to acquire a large slice of territory as the share of the Marathas from the kingdom of Mysore. His death in 1800 removed the last great Maratha leader. Peshwa Baji Rao II, despite his stately appearance and immense learning, lacked political wisdom. The infighting among the Maratha leaders proved to be self-destructive. Jaswant Rao Holkar and Daulat Rao Scindia were fighting against each other. The Peshwa supported Scindia against Holkar. Holkar marched against the Peshwa. The combined forces of Scindia and the Peshwa were utterly defeated. The city of Poona fell at the feet of the victor who did not hesitate to commit all sorts of atrocities, including the torturing of rich inhabitants. With rich booty Holkar returned to his capital. Peshwa Baji Rao II was in great danger, so he fled to Bassein where he signed the Treaty of Bassein with the British in 1802. It was a subsidiary treaty and the Peshwa was recognized as the head of the Maratha kingdom. Although it was nominal, the treaty was considered the crowning triumph of Wellesley’s Subsidiary System. In accordance with this document, the foreign policy of the Marathas came under British control and therefore any action of the Maratha chiefs against the British was successfully prevented. 

That is the reason why the Marathas considered the treaty as a document of surrendering their independence. As an immediate response to the Treaty of Bassein, the British troops marched under the command of Arthur Wellesley towards Poona and restored the Peshwa to his position. The forces of Holkar vanished from the Maratha capital. The Second Maratha War (1803-1805) Daulat Rao Scindia and Raghoji Bhonsle took the Treaty of Bassein as an insult to the national honour of the Marathas. Soon the forces of both the chieftains were united and they crossed the river Narmada. Wellesley seized this opportunity and declared war in August 1803. Arthur Wellesley captured Ahmadnagar in August 1803 and defeated the combined forces of Scindia and Bhonsle at Assaye near Aurangabad. Subsequently, Arthur Wellesley carried the war into Bhonsle’s territory and completely defeated the Maratha forces on the plains of Argaon. As a result, the Treaty of Deogaon was signed between Bhonsle and Wellesley. The former signed the subsidiary treaty which forced him to give up the province of Cuttack in Orissa. The campaign of British commander Lord Lake against the forces of Scindia was rather dramatic. Lake triumphantly entered the historic city of Delhi and took Shah Alam, the Mughal Emperor under British protection. Lake was quick in consolidating his conquests. By negotiating with the Raja of Bharatpur, he occupied Agra. Sadly this military engagement proved to be a battle of great slaughter in which thousands of Maratha soldiers perished. Scindia signed a subsidiary treaty with the British. It is known as the Treaty of Surji –Arjungaon. During the war against Bhonsle and Scindia, Holkar remained aloof because he was Scindia’s enemy. However, when Wellesley offered an alliance, Holkar made extreme demands. This made Wellesley to declare war against Holkar. 

The campaign against Holkar was well-organised but the English generals for the first time committed blunders. Holkar remained unsubdued. Estimate of Wellesley An unscrupulous annexationist and an advocate of forward policy, Wellesley was one of the greatest empire-builders that England had ever produced. Wellesley converted the British Empire in India to the British Empire of India. The establishment of British paramountcy in India was his supreme task. He located the weak spots of the Indian powers and applied his political technique (namely Subsidiary Alliance). By the annexation of Karnatak and Tanjore he paved the way for the formation of the Madras Presidency. He rightly deserves to be called the maker of the erstwhile Madras Presidency and the creator of the Province of Agra. In this manner a great part of the Indian subcontinent was brought under Company protection. “He turned the East India Company from a trading corporation into an imperial power”. Sir George Barlow was the next Governor-General for two years (1805-07). The Vellore Mutiny of 1806 took place during his administration. He was succeeded by Lord Minto (1807-13) who concluded the Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh of Punjab in 1809. The Charter Act of 1813 was passed during this period.


Lord Cornwallis, a warrior-statesman, succeeded Warren Hastings as Governor-General in 1786. He belonged to an influential and aristocratic family which had wider political connections. He was also a close friend of Prime Minister Pitt and of Dundas, the most influential member of the Board of Control. He distinguished himself as a remarkable soldier in the American War of Independence. Although he surrendered at York Town in 1781 before the American troops, his reputation was not spoiled. He still enjoyed the confidence of the authorities at Home. After his return from America he was offered the Governor- Generalship in India. Cornwallis was prompted by a strong sense of public duty and enjoyed the respect as well as the confidence of his fellow countrymen. The Parliament was prepared to give him extraordinary legal powers to carry out radical reforms in the administration of Bengal. 

It amended Pitt’s India Act in 1786 so as enable him to overrule the decision of the majority of his council, if necessary. The appointment of Cornwallis was significant in one respect. A new tradition of choosing a person from an aristocratic family for the post of Governor-General was initiated. It was his good fortune that he had an excellent team of subordinates comprising John Shore, James Grant, and Sir William Jones. Although Cornwallis commenced his work under beneficial circumstances, he had to carry out his policy with caution. Tipu Sultan and the Third Mysore War (1790-92) The Treaty of Mangalore (1784) exhibited the military strength of Mysore, exposed English weaknesses and increased Tipu’s strength. Like his father he wanted to eliminate the English from India. His other designs were to wreak vengeance on the Nizam and on the Marathas as they had betrayed his father during the hour of need. 

The chief causes for the Third Mysore War were: 1. Tipu Sultan strengthened his position by undertaking various internal reforms. This created worries to the British, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas. 2. Moreover, Tipu made attempts to seek the help of France and Turkey by sending envoys to those countries. 3. He also expanded his territories at the cost of his neighbours, particularly the Raja of Travancore, who was an ally of the British. 4. In 1789, the British concluded a tripartite alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas against Tipu.War broke out in May 1790 between the English and Tipu. It was fought in three phases. The first phase commenced when Medows, the Governor of Madras, initially directed the campaign to invade Mysore but Tipu’s rapid movements halted the progress of the English troops and inflicted heavy losses on them. In the meantime, Cornwallis himself assumed command in December 1790. This was the beginning of the second phase of the war. Marching from Vellore, he captured Bangalore in March 1791, but Tipu’s brilliant strategies prolonged the war and Cornwallis was forced to retreat to Mangalore due to lack of provisions. The third phase of the war began when timely aid from the Marathas with plenty of provisions helped him to resume his campaign and marched against Srirangapattinam again. 

This time Tipu was at a disadvantage. Swiftly the English forces occupied the hill forts near Srirangapattinam and seized it in February 1792. Tipu Sultan concluded the Treaty of Srirangapattinam with the British. The terms of the treaty were as follows: (i) Tipu had to give up half his dominions. (ii) He had to pay a war indemnity of three crore rupees and surrender two of his sons as hostages to the English. (iii) Both sides agreed to release the prisoners of war. The Treaty of Srirangapattinam is a significant event in the history of South India. The British secured a large territory on the Malabar Coast. In addition they obtained the Baramahal district and Dindugal. After this war, although the strength of Mysore had been reduced, it was not extinguished. Tipu had been defeated but not destroyed. Reforms The internal reforms of Cornwallis can be studied under three main heads. (i) Administrative reforms (ii) Revenue reforms or Permanent Settlement (given in Lesson -7) (iii) Judicial and other reforms Administrative Reforms The greatest work of Cornwallis was the purification of the civil service by the employment of capable and honest public servants. He aimed at economy, simplification and purity. He found that the servants of the Company were underpaid. But they received very high commissions on revenues. In addition to that they conducted forbidden and profitable private trade in the names of relatives and friends. Cornwallis, who aimed at cleansing the administration, abolished the vicious system of paying small salaries and allowing enormous perquisites. He persuaded the Directors of the Company to pay handsome salaries to the Company servants in order that they might free themselves from commercial and corrupting activities. 

Further, Cornwallis inaugurated the policy of making appointments mainly on the basis of merit thereby laying the foundation of the Indian Civil Service. To cut down on extravagances, he abolished a number of surplus posts. Another major reform that Cornwallis introduced was the separation of the three branches of service, namely commercial, judicial and revenue. The collectors, the king-pins of the administrative system were deprived of their judicial powers and their work became merely the collection of revenue.Judicial Reforms In the work of judicial reorganization, Cornwallis secured the services of Sir William Jones, who was a judge and a great scholar. Civil and criminal courts were completely reorganized. 1. At the top of the judicial system, the highest civil and criminal courts of appeal, namely Sadar Diwani Adalat and Sadar Nizamat Adalat were functioning at Calcutta. Both of them were presided over by the Governor-General and his Council. 2. There were four provincial courts of appeal at Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna, each under three European judges assisted by Indian advisers. 3. District and City courts functioned each under a European judge. Every district was provided with a court. As already stated, Cornwallis had taken away from the collectors of their judicial powers and made them solely responsible for the collection of revenue. As a result, District Judges were appointed. 4. Indian judges or Munsiffs were appointed to all the courts at the bottom of the judicial system. In criminal cases, Muslim law was improved and followed. 

In civil cases, Hindu and Muslim laws were followed according to the religion of the litigants. In suits between Hindus and Muslims, the judge was the deciding authority. Cornwallis was merciful by temperament. He hated barbarous punishments and abolished those like mutilation and trial by ordeal. Cornwallis was better known as a law giver than as an administrator. With the help of his colleague, George Barlow, Cornwallis prepared a comprehensive code, covering the whole field of administration’, judicial, police, commercial and fiscal. This Code was based upon the principle of Montesquieu, “the Separation of Powers”, which was popular in the West in 18th century. In order to curb undue exercise of authority Cornwallis made all officials answerable to the courts. Police Reforms The effective implementation of judicial reforms required the reorganisation of police administration. The District Judge controlled the police. Each district was divided into thanas or police circles each of which was about 20 square miles. It was placed under an Indian officer called the daroga who was ably assisted by many constables. However, the police organization was not effective. 

In the words of Marshman, ‘the daroga enjoyed almost unlimited power of extortion and became the scourge of the country”. Other Reforms Cornwallis reformed the Board of Trade which managed the commercial investments of the Company. With the aid of Charles Grant, he eradicated numerous abuses and corrupt practices. Fair treatment was given to weavers and Indian workers. He increased the remuneration for honest service. Estimate of Cornwallis Cornwallis, a blue-blooded aristocrat, was an ardent patriot. He discharged his duties fearlessly, and his life was an embodiment of ‘duty and sacrifice’. He perceived the danger of Tipu’s growing power and curtailed it by boldly discarding the policy of nonintervention. As an administrator, he consolidated the Company’s position in India and started the tradition of efficient and pure administration. Although there were defects in his Permanent Settlement of Land Revenue, his administrative and judicial reforms were solid achievements. He may be regarded the parent of the Indian Administrative Service and founder of an efficient and clean system of administration. Sir John Shore (1793-98) succeeded Cornwallis as Governor General and his administration was uneventful.

Expansionist Policy of Warren Hastings

Expansionist Policy of Warren Hastings 

Warren Hastings was known for his expansionist policy. His administration witnessed the Rohilla War, the First Anglo-Maratha War and the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The Rohilla War (1774) Rohilkand was a small kingdom situated in between Oudh and the Marathas. Its ruler was Hafiz Rahmat Khan. He concluded a defensive treaty in 1772 with the Nawab of Oudh fearing an attack by the Marathas. But no such attack took place. But, the Nawab demanded money. When Rahmat Khan evaded, the Nawab with the help of the British invaded Rohilkand. Warren Hastings, who sent the British troops against Rohilkand was severely crticised for his policy on Rohilla affair. 

First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Marathas were largely remained disunited since the Third Battle of Panipet (1761). The internal conflict among the Marathas was best utilized by the British in their expansionist policy. In 1775, there was a dispute for the post of Peshwa between Madhav Rao and his uncle Ragunatha Rao. The British authorities in Bombay concluded the Treaty of Surat with Raghunatha Rao in March 1775. Rahunatha Rao promised to cede Bassein and Salsette to the British but later when he was unwilling to fulfill his promise, the British captured them. This action of the Bombay Government was not approved by Warren Hastings. In 1776, Warren Hastings sent Colonel Upton to settle the issue. He cancelled the Treaty of Surat and concluded the Treaty of Purander with Nana Fadnavis, another Maratha leader. According to this treaty Madhava Rao II was accepted as the new Peshwa and the British retained Salsette along with a heavy war indemnity. 

However, the Home authorities rejected the Treaty of Purander. Warren Hastings also considered the Treaty of Purandar as a ‘scrap of paper’ and sanctioned operations against the Marathas. In the meantime, the British force sent by the Bombay Government was defeated by the Marathas. In 1781, Warren Hastings dispatched British troops under the command of Captain Popham. He defeated the Maratha chief, Mahadaji Scindia, in a number of small battles and captured Gwalior. Later in May 1782, the Treaty of Salbai was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. Accordingly, Salsette and Bassein were given to the British. Raghunath Rao was pensioned off and Madhav Rao II was accepted as the Peshwa. The Treaty of Salbai established the British influence in Indian politics. It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas. The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers. 

The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) The first Anglo-Mysore War took place in 1767-69. Haider Ali emerged victorious against the British and at the end of the War a defensive treaty was concluded between Haider Ali and the British. After eleven years, the Second Mysore War broke out and the main causes for the second Anglo-Mysore War were: 1. The British failed to fulfill the terms of the defensive treaty with Haider when he was attacked by the Marathas in 1771. 2. There was an outbreak of hostilities between the English and the French (an ally of Haider) during the American War of Independence. 3. The British captured Mahe, a French settlement within Haider’s territories. 4. Haider Ali formed a grand alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas against the British in 1779. The War began when the British led their forces through Haider’s territory without his permission to capture Guntur in the Northern Sarkars. 

Haider Ali defeated Colonel Baillie and captured Arcot in 1780. In the next year, Warren Hastings, by a clever stroke of diplomacy, divided the Confederacy. He made peace with the Nizam, won the friendship of Bhonsle and came to an understanding with the Scindia (both Marathas). Consequently, Haider was isolated without any alliance. He was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo in March 1781. In December 1782, Haider died of cancer at the age of sixty and his death was kept secret till his son Tipu Sultan assumed power. The Second Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Mangalore in 1783. Accordingly, all conquests were mutually restored and the prisoners on both sides were liberated. Pitt’s India Act, 1784 The Regulating Act proved to be an unsatisfactory document as it failed in its objective. In January 1784, Pitt the Younger (who became Prime Minister of England after the General Elections) introduced the India Bill in the British Parliament. 

Despite bitter debate in both the Houses, the bill was passed after seven months and it received royal assent in August 1784. This was the famous Pitt’s India Act of 1784. Main Provisions (i) A Board of Control consisting of six members was created. They were appointed by the Crown. (ii) The Court of Directors was retained without any alteration in its composition. (iii) The Act also introduced significant changes in the Indian administration. It reduced the number of the members of the Governor-General’s Council from four to three including the Commander-in-Chief. Pitt’s India Act constitutes a significant landmark with regard to the foreign policy of the Company. A critical review of the Act reveals that it had introduced a kind of contradiction in the functions of the Company. The Court of Directors controlled its commercial functions, whereas the Board of Control maintained its political affairs. In fact, the Board represented the King, and the Directors symbolised the Company. The Impeachment of Warren Hastings The Pitt’s India Act of 1784 was a rude shock and bitter disappointment for Warren Hastings. 

The Prime Minister’s speech censuring the policy of the Government of Bengal was considered by Warren Hastings as a reflection on his personal character. His image and reputation were tarnished in England. Therefore, he resigned and left India in June 1785. In 1787, Warren Hastings was impeached in the Parliament by Edmund Burke and the Whigs for his administrative excess. Burke brought forward 22 charges against him. The most important of them were related to the Rohilla War, the Case of Nanda Kumar, the treatment of Raja Chait Singh of Benares and the pressures on the Begums of Oudh. 

After a long trail which lasted till 1795, Warren Hastings was completely acquitted. He received pension from the Company and lived till 1818.Estimate of Warren Hastings He was a gifted personality endowed with ‘strong will, great energy and resourcefulness’. His long stay in Bengal ‘in the shadow of the Mughal cultural tradition’ gave him, enough opportunity to learn oriental languages such as Bengali (the local language) and Persian (the diplomatic language) and to develop ‘oriental tastes’. Since he considered Indian culture as a basis for sound Indian administration, he patronised the learning of Indian languages and arts. His task was a challenging one since he was surrounded by hostile forces. “He faced his external enemies with unflinching courage and unfailing resource, and his internal opponents with extraordinary patience and firmness.” It was on the foundation which Warren Hastings laid down, that others erected a ‘stately edifice’. 

 Nanda Kumar was an influential official in Bengal. He was hanged to death by the verdict of the Supreme Court at Calcutta for a petty offence of forgery. The English law was applied in this judgement. It was contended that Warren Hastings and Sir Elija Impey, the judge of the Supreme Court conspired against Nanda Kumar. Warren Hastings imposed heavy penalty on the Raja Chait Singh of Benares for his delay in payment of tribute and deposed him in an unjust manner.

The English East India Company

The English East India Company The English East India Company was established on 31 December 1600 as per the Royal Charter issued by the Queen of England, Elizabeth I. The Company had sent Captain Hawkins to the court of the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir in 1608 to secure permission to establish a “factory” (store house of goods) at Surat. 

It was turned down initially. However, in 1613, Jahangir issued the firman permitting the East India Company to establish its first trading post at Surat. Subsequently, Sir Thomas Roe obtained more trading rights and privileges for the East India Company. Accordingly, the English set up business centres at Agra, Ahmedabad and Broach. Slowly the English East India Company succeeded in expanding its area of trade. In 1639, Francis Day established the city of Madras and constructed the Fort St. George. 

On the west coast, the Company obtained Bombay on lease from their King, Charles II for a rent of 10 pounds per annum in 1668. By the year 1690, Job Charnock, the agent of the East India Company purchased three villages namely, Sutanuti, Govindpur and Kalikatta, which, in course of time, grew into the city of Calcutta. It was fortified by Job Charnock, who named it Fort William after the English King, William III. The factories and trading centres which the English established all along the sea-coast of India were grouped under three presidencies namely Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the Company became a political power. 

India was under the East India Company’s rule till 1858 when it came under the direct administration of the British Crown. Robert Clive was the first Governor of Fort William under the Company’s rule. He was succeeded by Verelst and Cartier. In 1772, the Company appointed Warren Hastings as the Governor of Fort William. Reforms of Warren Hastings When Warren Hastings assumed the administration of Bengal in 1772, he found it in utter chaos. The financial position of the Company became worse and the difficulties were intensified by famine. Therefore, Warren Hastings realized the immediate need for introducing reforms. 

Abolition of the Dual System The East India Company decided to act as Diwan and to undertake the collection of revenue by its own agents. Hence, the Dual System introduced by Robert Clive was abolished. As a measure to improve the finances of the Company, Warren Hastings reduced the Nawab’s allowance of 32 lakhs of rupees to half that amount. He also stopped the annual payment of 26 lakhs given to the Mughal Emperor. Revenue Reforms After the abolition of the Dual System, the responsibility of collecting the revenue fell on the shoulders of the Company. For that purpose, a Board of Revenue was established at Calcutta to supervise the collection of revenue. English Collectors were appointed in each district. The treasury was removed from Murshidabad to Calcutta and an Accountant General was appointed. Calcutta thus became the capital of Bengal in 1772 and shortly after of British India. The Board of Revenue farmed out the lands by auction for a period of five years instead of one year in order to find out their real value. 

The zamindars were given priority in the auction. However, certain good measures were taken to safeguard the interests of the peasants. Arbitrary cesses and unreasonable fines were abolished. Besides, restrictions were imposed on the enhancement of rent. Yet, the system was a failure. Many zamindars defaulted and the arrears of revenue accumulated. Reorganisation of the Judicial System The judicial system at the time of Warren Hastings’ ascendancy was a store-house of abuses. The Nawab who was hitherto the chief administrator of justice, misused his powers. Often, his judgments were careless. The zamindars who acted as judges at lower levels within their own areas were highly corrupt and prejudiced. On the whole, the judicial institution suffered from extreme corruption. Warren Hastings felt the necessity of reorganising the judicial system. Each district was provided with a civil court under the Collector and a criminal court under an Indian Judge. To hear appeals from the district courts two appellate courts, one for civil cases and another for criminal cases, were established at Calcutta. The highest civil court of appeal was called Sadar Diwani Adalat, which was to be presided over by the Governor and two judges recruited from among the members of his council. 

Similarly, the highest appellate criminal court was known as Sadar Nizamat Adalat which was to function under an Indian judge appointed by the Governor-in-Council. Experts in Hindu and Muslim laws were provided to assist the judges. A digest of Hindu law was prepared in Sanskrit by learned Pandits and it was translated into Persian. An English translation of it – Code of Hindu Laws – was prepared by Halhed. Trade Regulations and other Reforms Warren Hastings abolished the system of dastaks, or free passes and regulated the internal trade. He reduced the number of custom houses and enforced a uniform tariff of 2.5 percent for Indian and non-Indian goods. Private trade by the Company’s servants continued but within enforceable limits. Weavers were given better treatment and facilities were made to improve their condition. He also introduced a uniform system of pre-paid postage system. A bank was started in Calcutta. He improved the police in Calcutta and the dacoits were severely dealt with. The Regulating Act of 1773 The Regulating Act of 1773 opened a new chapter in the constitutional history of the Company. Previously, the Home government in England consisted of the Court of Directors and the Court of Proprietors. 

The Court of Directors were elected annually and practically managed the affairs of the Company. In India, each of the three presidencies was independent and responsible only to the Home Government. The government of the presidency was conducted by a Governor and a Council.The following conditions invited the Parliamentary intervention in the Company’s affairs. The English East India Company became a territorial power when it acquired a wide dominion in India and also the Diwani rights. Its early administration was not only corrupt but notorious. When the Company was in financial trouble, its servants were affluent. The disastrous famine which broke out in Bengal in 1770 affected the agriculturists. As a result, the revenue collection was poor. In short, the Company was on the brink of bankruptcy. In 1773, the Company approached the British government for an immediate loan. It was under these circumstances that the Parliament of England resolved to regulate the affairs of the Company. Lord North, the Prime Minister of England, appointed a select committee to inquire into the affairs of the Company. The report submitted by the Committee paved the way for the enactment of the Regulating Act. Provisions of the Act The Regulating Act reformed the Company’s Government at Home and in India. 

The important provisions of the Act were: (i) The term of office of the members of the Court of Directors was extended from one year to four years. One-fourth of them were to retire every year and the retiring Directors were not eligible for re-election. (ii) The Governor of Bengal was styled the Governor-General of Fort William whose tenure of office was for a period of five years. (iii) A council of four members was appointed to assist the Governor-General. The government was to be conducted in accordance with the decision of the majority. The Governor- General had a casting vote in case of a tie. (iv) The Governor-General in Council was made supreme over the other Presidencies in matters of war and peace. (v) Provision was made in the Act for the establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta consisting of a Chief Justice and three junior judges. It was to be independent of the Governor- General in Council. In 1774, the Supreme Court was established by a Royal Charter. (vi) This Act prevented the servants of the Company including the Governor-General, members of his council and the judges of the Supreme Court from receiving directly or indirectly any gifts in kind or cash. 

Merits and Demerits of the Act The significance of the Regulating Act is that it brought the affairs of the Company under the control of the Parliament. Besides, it proved that the Parliament of England was concerned about the welfare of Indians. The greatest merit of this Act is that it put an end to the arbitrary rule of the Company and provided a framework for all future enactments relating to the governing of India. The main defect of the Act was that the Governor-General was made powerless because the council which was given supreme power often created deadlocks by over-ruling his decision. However, many of these defects were rectified by the Pitt’s India Act of 1784.

Saturday, 19 January 2013


As per the Notification No.3/2012 published on 28.02.2012, the Written Competitive Examination for the Direct Recruitment Post of Post Graduate

Wednesday, 16 January 2013

It’s recruitment time on campuses. How does one decipher the DNA of a good placement interview? What is the dilemma of recruiters and what does it mean for the candidate?

As the placement season in professional colleges heats up, so do does the growing concern of the recruiters about choosing the right fit. Interview process is a defining moment not only for the candidate but also for the corporate. Of the different parameters of evaluating a prospective candidate for a chosen position, the PI (personal Interview), holds paramount significance owing to various reasons:

You must develop your skill depending on which aspect of the IT industry you may fit in perfectly.

In the first of this series we explored what the IT industry is about and two of the prominent types of IT companies that exist in India today — the Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) and the System Integrators (SIs). Now that we have an understanding of different companies in the IT space, let us take a closer look at the inner workings of an IT company. Why is this important? Understanding the activities that occur within a company is a critical step towards identifying which aspect interests YOU the most. After all, you will be doing these activities every day for possibly the rest of your life. Once you understand the various activities and the roles that perform them, it becomes easier to develop the skills required to succeed in that specific role.

Life is not just for the alphas

The race to be number one starts with pre-kindergarten these days, with interviews being held for play-school admissions. Right from that point to the pinnacle of student-life —entering college — it’s a mad rush to occupy coveted positions in quality institutions. A few are able to sail through this rush and some others give up unable to cope, but for most students who fall under that blanket term — average student — it is an endless stream of challenges and struggle and even innovation. If they looked back on their college days after twenty years what would they remember — their efforts to beat the top-ranker? Taking up their first loan? Finding their true talent? Or earning their first salary? It could in fact be any of this, we discover.

Master of all trades

Nabajit Sarkar, a student of Class IX of Arya Vidyapeeth Higher Secondary and Multipurpose School, lives in the Birubari locality in the heart of Guwahati. His father earns livelihood as an auto van driver, while his mother works at a street tailoring shop to help his father mend both ways with her little income. Nabajit never had a chance to visit a shopping mall even though the city has witnessed a boom in malls and other retail shopping centres.

The real teachers

While most Class 10 students are experiencing nervous moments for being at the threshold of stepping into college life, Arjun Shetty is already securing his path for two years later. An aspiring engineering student, pre-university (PU) is much more than prep-time for him; so much so that despite months to go for the tenth board exams, he has already decided which college to join for Class 11.

With the Board exams just a month away, psychologists give tips on how to overcome stress.

We have prepared adequately well and are confident to take the Board examination. Encouragement and counselling from teachers and revision test has helped us a lot,” says Jayashree and Swarna, Plus Two students of a private school in Chennai. “My anxiety is growing. What if the paper is too tough or tricky this year and what if I do not get admission in a good college?” asks Sai Prabha, a Plus Two student from a city school. “I have done well in the half-yearly examination and we have two more revisions to take. I am confident of scoring well. But not sure if I will get admission in an engineering college,” says Kumaran of a government-aided school.

Tuesday, 15 January 2013




1. The book ‘Philosophie Zoologique’ was published by | விலங்கியல் தத்துவம் என்ற நூலை வெளியிட்டவர்
(A) Charles Darwin | சார்லஸ் டார்வின்
(B) August Weismann ஆகஸ்ட் வீஸ்மேன்
(C) Mc Dougall | மெக்டுகால்
(D) Jean Baptiste de Lamarck | ஜீன் பாப்ஸ்து லாமார்க்
See Answer:


1. The breeds of cattle now available in India are | தற்போதுக் காணப்படும் மாட்டினங்களின் எண்ணிக்கை
(A) 29 | 29 இனங்கள்
(B) 30 | 30 இனங்கள்
(C) 26 | 26 இனங்கள்
(D) 20 | 20 இனங்கள்
See Answer:


1. What is the rate of growth of human population | மக்கள்தொகைப் பெருக்க வளர்ச்சி வீதம் எவ்வளவு?
a) 10 billion per year | ஆண்டுக்கு 10 மில்லியன்
b) 90 billion per year| ஆண்டுக்கு 90 மில்லியன்
c) 1 billion per year | ஆண்டுக்கு 1 மில்லியன்
d) 80 billion per year| ஆண்டுக்கு 80 மில்லியன்
See Answer|விடையை சரிபாருங்கள் :


1. In which prokaryote has voluminous genetical works been made | எந்தப் புரோகேரியாட்டில் அதிக அளவு மரபியல் சோதனைகள் மேற்கொள்ளப்பட்டுள்ளது.
(B) Phage | ஃபேஜ்
(C) Escherichia coli | எஸ்செர்சியா கோலை
(D) coliform bacteria | கோலிபார்ம் பாக்டீரியா
See Answer:


1. Which of the following can induce immunity |கீழ்கொடுக்கப்பட்டுள்ளவைகளுள் தடுப்பாற்றலைத் தூண்டுபவை எவை
(A) bacteria | பாக்டீரியா
(B) Viruses | வைரஸ்
(C) Parasites | ஒட்டுண்ணிகள்
(D) All the above | அனைத்தும்
See Answer: